|2004 photo of David McCullough|
Our Army was indeed a rag tag collection of volunteers from all walks of lives, teachers, shoe makers, farmers, no-accounts, shop keepers and every shape, size, and age, some "mere boys turned into soldiers." Pgs 32-33, The American militia in reality "looked more like farmers in from the fields than soldiers. That so many were filthy, dirty was perfectly
understandable, as so many, when not drilling, spent their days digging trenches, hauling rock and throwing up great mounds of earth for defense. ...It was dirty hard labor and there was little chance or the means ever to bathe or enjoy such luxury as a change of clothes. Few of the men had what would pass for a uniform. ..Not only were most men unwashed, and often unshaven, they were clad in a bewildering variety of this and that, largely whatever they had been able to throw together before they trudged off to war. They wore heavy homespun cloth coats and shirts, often in tatters...The arms they bore were as various as their costumes, mainly muskets," A far different picture than the tricorner hats and breeches worn by strutting men playing fife and drum that we have seen in musicals and movies. There are many fine photographs of portraits again documenting the massive research efforts.
I was amused to learn of one of George Washington's favorite quotes from Cato, by the English author Joseph Addison, the most popular play of that time. One line, he frequently referenced as commander in chief, facing head on the realities of the situation, Pg.47, "'Tis not in mortals to command success, but we'll do more, Sempronius, we'll deserve it."
I was struck by page 226, a lesson from history that we seem to have fully ignored or declared no longer fitting to our times,is that George Washington fully realized that a full time Army was a necessity that a part time Army does not work. Yet, today that seems to be what politicians and Americans demand. "..war is no work of a day, he warned and must be carried on systematically. ..Good officers were mandatory and the only means to obtain good officers was to establish the army on a permanent footing. There must be an end to short term enlistments. Officers must be better paid, better trained. Soldiers must be offered a good bounty, adequate clothing and blankets, plus the promise of free land."
1776 also covers the British and their attitudes, particularly British commander William Howe. The narrative begins in London , October 26, 1775 when King George goes to Parliament to gain consent to crush the American resistance. I learned lots of tidbits seldom reported in history thanks to the author's massive research in both American and British archives. Pg 291, quote written a century later by Sir George Otto Trevelyan, in a classic study of the American Revolution, "It may be doubted whether so small a number of men ever employed so short a space of time with greater and more lasting effects upon the history of the world."" I did not realize this book was written as a companion to McCullough's masterpiece biography about John Adams. It is 294 pages of narrative, followed by acknowledgements and copious reference notes. I read this book in October and November 2015, but just now am posting it here, as you know I have been a negligent blogger. It was an overall 3 star rating, average, middle to the 5 stars I use, 5 being the best. ***
June and July I read The Wright Brothers, 262 pages, followed by extensive reference notes and including many photographs and the most famous of the Kitty Hawk in flight. . It is as the title reveals the story of Orville and Wilbur Wright, two brothers, bicycle mechanics from Dayton Ohio who founded American and indeed world wide aviation after a wintry day in 1903 on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. I savored this book, the history of aviation, the character study of the brothers and their sister, Katherine, their father Bishop Wright. One other brother, Lorin, the oldest lost patience with Wilbur in his early years,". "What does Will do" he wrote Katherine from Kansas where he had gone to seek his fortune. "He ought to be doing something, is he still cook and chambermaid.?".
There is fascinating detail about their ability, courage, intellect, curiosity and true grit, determination. Their absolute devotion to flying was the exclusion of any other aspects of life, the brothers would remain life long bachelors. I did not know that after their successes, the French government was the first to want to invest in flilght, building on their success with gliders in France. The US government was a bit disdainful if not skeptical of the use of aviatn in the future. The first chapter of this book is aptly titled, "Beginnings." and the first lines quote Wilbur Wright, "If I were giving a young man advice as to how he might succeed in life, I would say to him, pick out a good father and mother and begin life in Ohio." It begins in 1909 when Wilbur is 42 and Orville 38 years old but goes back into the family history and the effect of the 1884 railroad and National Cash Register Company in the development of the Dayton area.
There is a great deal of information about wind and velocities (Pg. 40), equilibrium (pg.38) that I found educating and fascinating scientific reading. ( Pg. 48 As time would show, caution and close attention to all advance preparations were to be the rule for the brothers. They would take risks when necessary, but they were no daredevils out to perform stunts and the never would be." Pg. 49, "Wind would be all important and contrary to the old Irish wish--'May the wind be ever at your back'--a good wind had to be head on. As would be said, for the Wrights the winds were never the enemy." Chapter 4, titled, Unyielding Resolve, "Pg 65, "We had to go ahead and discover everything ourselves." Orville Wright. Pg. 70 "The work was unlike anything the brothers had ever undertaken and the most demanding of their time and powers of concentration. They were often at it past midnight. As said later in the Aeronautical Journal fo the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, "Never in the history of the world had men studied the problem with such scientific skill nor with such undaunted courage."
The one colleague the brothers would have and would depend on was Charlie Taylor, a man they hired to keep their bicycle shop going while they were in North Carolina. It was not easy going for the brothers, when they began to solicit the manufacture of a light engine for flight from American automobile engine manufacturers, only one responded and that with a far too heavy motor, so the brothers with no experience building engines had more work to do themselves. Pg 86, In time to come the brothers would b widely portrayed as a couple of clever, hometown bicycle mechanics who manged to succeed where so many others had failed because of their good old fashioned American knack for solving seemingly impossible mechanical problems. This was true only in part." Pgs 86 and 87 discuss Charlie Taylor's contribution early on, although distrusted by Katherine who disliked his know it all attitude, His only prior experience with a gas engine had been to try to fix one in an auto a few years previously. " But that January working in the back shop with the same metal lathe and drill press used for building bicycles, he went to work and 6 weeks later had it finished." I was intrigued to learn he built the engine block from cast aluminum provided b "the up and coing Aluminum Company of America, based in Pittsburgh." The Alcoa company was a major employer in my hometown in PA.
Pg 236, "A machine was like a horse, Wilbur said, 'If it's new you have to get used to it before it will do just as you want it to. You have to learn its peculiarities."
This is another 5 star read by David McCullough, I found it engrossing. *****
Often I cut reviews from other sources or copy links. I thought it worth sharing this one on The Wright Brothers here by Tom Beer in Newsday , if the link does not work I have scanned the article and will attach it below as well.